Department of Pharmacology

Dr O.K. Yemitan
(B.SC, M.Sc, Ph.d)
Ag. H.O.D Pharmacology



INTRODUCTION
Pharmacology focuses on the study of the actions of drugs and chemicals on cells, tissues, and whole body. It focuses on finding how drugs produce beneficial and adverse effects, with the aim of improving the way drugs are tested and provide greater benefits in the treatment of disease. The study of Pharmacology requires the understanding of normal body functions (Biochemistry and Physiology) and the disturbances that occur (Pathology). Hence, Pharmacology is the basis of much of the research and development of new drugs focusing on the development of a better understanding of the actions of drugs and chemicals on biological systems for the improvement of human health

VISION
To provide world-class education and research in Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology.

MISSION

  • To teach up-to-date research-driven information in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics.
  • To initiate or collaborate in cutting-edge Pharmacologic, Therapeutic and Toxicologic researches.
  • To train world-class undergraduate and post-graduate students in fields of Pharmacology.
  • To provide world-class services in drug development and safety.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES PHARMACOLOGY COURSE

  • To introduce students to the principles of drug treatment in disease states
  • To impart knowledge on the understanding of properties of drugs and the mechanisms by which they produce their effects in diseased conditions
  • To enable students at the end of the course to be competent to select drug(s) rationally for any ailment diagnosed on a scientific basis.
  • To produce high quality scientific researchers capable of various roles in Research Institutes, Service Laboratories, Hospitals, and Pharmaceutical Industries;
  • To produce graduates who will be eligible for post-graduate studies leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees. .

MODE OF INSTRUCTION

  • Didactic lectures with use of teaching aids
  • Laboratory practicals and clinical rounds.
  • To provide extensive outreach programs that brings quality services and preventive education to patients in need of dental care
  • Seminars

  • Course and group assignments

MODE OF ASSESSMENT

  • Continuous Assessment (Mode: multiple choice questions, one answer questions, essay questions, hands-on practicals, objective-structured practical examinations); 30 %.
  • End of Semester Course Examinations (Mode as for continuous assessment); 70 %.

PHARMACOLOGY COURSE

Introductory Pharmacology
Origin and Sources of Drugs; Routes of Administration of Drugs; Pharmacodynamics: Mechanisms of Drug Action –Receptor & Non-Receptor theories. Types of receptors; Ligand gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors; Dose-Response Relationships. Agonists-effect curves-Full agonist, partial agonist. Concept of efficacy. Slow processes (desensitization and tachyphylaxis). Antagonists – Competitive and Non-competitive. Analysis of Dose-Response Relationships. Pharmacokinetics; Absorption of Drugs; Excretion of Drugs; Biotransformation of Drugs; Pharmaceutical formulations. Routes of drug administration. Drug absorption. Bioavailability, Bioequivalence. Generic vs. proprietary prescribing. Extending the duration of drug action – infusion of a drug, repeated drug administration (multiple dosing).Structure Activity Relationship; Mode of Action of Drugs; Types of Drug Action. Drug Action in Man-compliance, Individual Variations; Presence of other drug; Genetic Effects; Tolerance and Tachyphylaxis; Effects of Diseases; Drug Toxicity, Adverse drug Reactions; Drug Dependence; Drug Interaction.

Central Nervous System Pharmacology
Special situations of Drug Action; entry of Drugs in C.N.S.; Non-narcotic Analgesics; Opiate Receptors; Narcotic Analgesics; Narcotic Antagonists and Partial Agonists; Antipyretic agents. Sleep: Barbiturates and Non-barbiturate agents; Alcohols, Review of General and Local Anaesthetic Drugs; Anaesthesia in persons already taking drugs Neuromuscular Blocking Agents; Central Nervous System Stimulants, Anticonvulsant Drugs: Epilepsies, Principles of Antiepileptic Treatment; Review of Different Groups of Antiepileptic Drugs, Status Epilepticus. Epilepsy and Special situations – pregnancy; Contraception; Anaesthesia, Surgery, Miscellaneous Anticonvulsant Drugs. Treatment of Parkinsonism: Levodopa, Decarboxylase Inhibitors, Bromocriptine, Amantadine; Anticholinergics; Anti-histaminics; Phenothiazines. Drug Therapy of Spasticity: Dantrolene, Baclofen; Interneuronal Blockers. Drugs in Myasthenia Gravis.

Autonomic Pharmacology
Neurohumoral Transmission: Transmitters in ANS. General principles of neurochemical transmission. Basic steps in neurochemical transmission. Sites of drug action. Other chemical transmitters in the ANS. Drugs on Neuro-effector Sites: Autacoids; Review of Neurohumoral Transmission; Transmitters in the Central and Peripheral Nervous system; Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors; Cholinergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Adrenergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Autacoids – Histamine Receptors and Histamine Antagonists; 5-hydroxytryptamine; Renin – Angiotensin; Kinins; Plasma Kinin, Bradykinin-kallikrein; Substance P; Prostaglandins; Leukotrienes; Cyclic Nucleotides and other mediators.

Psychopharmacology- Drugs in Mental Disorders
Psychoses, Depression; Anxiety, Neuroleptics – Phenothiazines; Butyrophenones; Dihydroindoles; Dibenzodiazepines; Rauwolfia Alkaloids. Anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines; Antidepressants with sedative properties; Thymoleptics; Tricyclics; Bicyclics; Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Hydrazines and Non-Hydrazines); Amino acid Precursors of Transmitter Amines; Amines; Tetraphydroisoquinoline Derivatives; Lithium; Psychostimulants; Psychodysleptics.

Organ System Pharmacology
i. Gastrointestinal Tract Pharmacology: Vomiting – Antiemetics; Constipation – Purgatives; Antacids – Anticholinergics – H2 Receptor Antagonists – Ulcer Healing Drugs; Gastrointestinal Hormones – Pentagastrin – Secretin; Non-specific Antidiarrhoeal Drugs; Lactulose; Lipid Disorders – Cholestyramine; Pancreatin; Cholecystokinin. Drugs for chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Drugs affecting the biliary system.
ii. Respiratory System Pharmacology: Oxygen therapy, Bronchodilator drugs; Asthma, Status Asthmaticus; Cough Suppressants; Mucolytic Agents; Respiratory Stimulants. COPD drug treatment.
iii. Cardiovascular System Pharmacology: Heart Failure and its Drug Management; Anti-anginal Drugs; Ischaemic heart disease and its Drug Management; Antiarrhythmic Drugs, Hypertension and its Drug Management; Vasodilators.
iv. Urinary System Pharmacology: Diuretics; Alteration of Urinary PH; Urinary Tract Infections; Renal Failure; Immunity; Immuno – Suppressive Agents.

Chemotherapy of Microbial and Parasitic Diseases
Microbes in Man; Mode of action of Antimicrobial Drugs; Sulphonamides; Penicillins; Cephalosporins; Aminoglycoside; Lincomycins; Peptide Antibiotics; Drugs Treatment of Tuberculosis; Miscellaneous Antibiotics; Vancomycin; Spectinomycin; Fusidic Acid; other Synthetic; Antimicrobial Drugs; Nalidixic Acid; Nitrofurantoin; Drug Treatment of Leprosy; Antifungal Agents; Fluorinated Pyrimidines; Imidazoles; Miscellaneous Antifungal Agents; Antiviral Agents; Methisazone; Idoxuridine; Cytarabine; Adenine Arabinoside, Interferons; Humoral Immunoglobulin. Malaria; Trypanosomiasis; Leishmaniasis; Amoebiasis; Amoebic Liver Abscess; Giardiasis; Trichomoniasis; Ankylostomiasis; Ascariasis; Trichiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Enterobiasis; Trichinosis; Filariasis; Loasis; Onchocerciasis; Dracontiasis; Schistosomiasis; Fasciolopsiasis; Clonorchiasis; Paragonimiasis; Taeniasis; Cystecercosis; Hydatid Disease; Dyphyllothriasis; Tape Worm. Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Anti-retroviral Therapy: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTI) including Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI); Nucleoside analogues; Protease Inhibitors (PI); and Hydroxy Urea with special emphasis on Retroviral Therapy in Pregnancy, Labour and the Newborn.

Drugs Acting on Blood and Blood-Forming Organs
Anaemias; Iron Deficiency and other Hypochromic Anaemias; Megaloblastic Anaemias; Iron-Cobalamins – Folates; Anticoagulants, Heparin, Coumarin, Indandiones; Fibrinolysis – Fibrinolysine; Thrombus; Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; Blood Lipid Lowering Drugs.

Chemotherapy of Malignant diseases
Principles of cancer chemotherapy, cell cycle. Alkylating agents, antimetabolites. Cytotoxic antibiotics. Natural and semisynthetic agents. Origin of acquired drug resistance and biochemical mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Hormones and antagonists, Radioactive isotopes. Plant alkaloids, and Monoclonal antibodies.

Drugs for pain, inflammatory and joint diseases
Non-narcotics and narcotic analgesics with their antagonists. Anti-Inflammatory agents and drug treatment of arthritis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) indomethacin, naproxen, glucocorticoids. Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Drugs in hyperuricaemia and gout, prophylaxis for recurrent gout. Inflammatory Arthropathy and Degenerative joint Diseases; Metabolic Disposition Arthropathy; Long-term: Antirheumatic Agents; Gold salts, D-penicillamine: Chloroquine; Immunosuppressive Agents; Levamisole; Gout; Colchicine and Democalcine; phenylbutazone; Indomethacin, Probenecid; Ethiebenecid, allopurinol. Antipyretics.

Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology, Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics, Heavy metals and their chelation, Environmental poisoning, Insecticides, Rodenticides, Principles of management of poisoning, Antidotes and Toxicological and human health risk assessment techniques.

Drugs in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Drugs in Pregnancy; Drugs Affecting Uterine Motility: Ergotamine, Oxytocin, Prostaglandins. Drugs in contraception, androgens, adrenal steroids and synthetic analogues: antagonists.

Development of New Drugs
Drugs in Pregnancy; Drugs Affecting Uterine Motility: Ergotamine, Oxytocin, Prostaglandins. Drugs in contraception, androgens, adrenal steroids and synthetic analogues: antagonists.

Traditional Medicines
Herbalism, Acupuncture, Naturopathy, Homeopathy etc.

Endocrine System Pharmacology
Mechanism of action of Hormones, CNS: Hypothalamus – Adenohypophysis – Endocrine Glands, Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones; Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroid Drugs; Parathyroid Hormones: Calcitonin; Antidiabetic drugs: Insulin; Oral Hypoglycaemics, Adrenocortical Hormones, Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, Hyperaldosteronism; Sex –Hormones: Oestrogens, Androgens, Progestogens, Antagonists to Hormones; Pharmacologic Methods of Family Planning.

Drugs Acting on the Skin
General Aspects of the Dermal Pharmacokinetics; forms of topical application and systemic administration in dermal conditions; topical antifungal and steroid preparations and adverse effects.

Practical Pharmacology
Classes/Demonstration Practicals on different aspects of Pharmacology, PHA 201- 215.

Seminar Topics on Recent Advances in Pharmacology
Selected Seminar topics on the review of the recent advances in Pharmacology. Students are expected to present their review findings on these topics to other students, as well as lecturers.

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